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Secondary phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) swelling response is a good indicator of T‐cell‐mediated immunity in free‐living birds

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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible [...]

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Santiago‐Quesada, Francisco Albano, Noelia Castillo‐Guerrero, José Alfredo Fernández, Guillermo et al.

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Secondary phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) swelling response is a good indicator of T‐cell‐mediated immunity in free‐living birds
2015
Santiago‐Quesada, Francisco; Albano, Noelia; Castillo‐Guerrero, José Alfredo; Fernández, Guillermo; González‐Medina, Erick; Sánchez‐Guzmán, Juan MANUEL; Burthe, Sarah
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12295
The validity of using the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) test to measure acquired immunity, one of the most widely used methods, is currently being debated due to new knowledge on the complex physiology of the process. As a greater secondary response to repeated challenges linked to increases of circulating lymphocyte levels would be indicative of a T‐cell‐mediated immune response, we performed for the first time an experiment under natural conditions with repeated PHA challenges in free‐living adult birds and chicks to shed light on this topic. We found significantly stronger secondary response to PHA injection independent of sex or age, while controlling for body condition, the second response being on average 90% larger than the first. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the second PHA challenge, whereas no significant differences were found among untreated birds. Significant positive correlations between the PHA response and both lymphocyte counts and plasma protein levels (mainly albumin, globulin precursor) were recovered, whereas no significant differences were recovered in plasma protein levels between challenges. Our results are consistent with those from captive birds, supporting the validity of the PHA skin‐swelling test as an accurate gauge of acquired T‐cell‐mediated immunity in birds.
[blood proteins, immune response, body condition, adults, phytohemagglutinin, birds, chicks, albumins, adaptive immunity]
[Ibis]
2016/US/US2016_0.rdf
Abstract
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The validity of using the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) test to measure acquired immunity, one of the most widely used methods, is currently being debated due to new knowledge on the complex physiology of the process. As a greater secondary response to repeated challenges linked to increases of circulating lymphocyte levels would be indicative of a T‐cell‐mediated immune response, we performed for the first time an experiment under natural conditions with repeated PHA challenges in free‐living adult birds and chicks to shed light on this topic. We found significantly stronger secondary response to PHA injection independent of sex or age, while controlling for body condition, the second response being on average 90% larger than the first. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the second PHA challenge, whereas no significant differences were found among untreated birds. Significant positive correlations between the PHA response and both lymphocyte counts and plasma protein levels (mainly albumin, globulin precursor) were recovered, whereas no significant differences were recovered in plasma protein levels between challenges. Our results are consistent with those from captive birds, supporting the validity of the PHA skin‐swelling test as an accurate gauge of acquired T‐cell‐mediated immunity in birds.

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Note that we used the plot command to add the next point to a plot. This command moves the current plot pen to the point that has an X coordinate equal to 1 greater than the previously plotted X coordinate and a Y coordinate equal to the value given in the plot command (in the first case, the number of turtles, and in the second case, the number of green patches). As the pens move they each draw a line.

You can now watch the plot being drawn as the model is running. Your plot should have the general shape of the one below, though your plot might not look exactly the same.

Remember that we left “Auto Scale?” on. This allows the plot to readjust itself when it runs out of room.

If you forget which pen is which, you can edit the plot and check the “Show legend?” checkbox.

You might try running the model several times to see what aspects of the plot are the same and which are different from run to run.

To make comparisons between plots from one model run and another, it is often useful to do the comparison for the same length of model run. Learning how to stop or start an action at a specific time can help make this happen by stopping the model at the same point each model run. Keeping track of how many times the go procedure is run is a useful way to cue these actions. That’s what the tick counter does.

You’re already using the tick counter in your model, with the reset-ticks and tick commands, which also trigger plotting.

You can also use the tick counter for other things, such as to set a limit on the total length of a run.

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The graph and model won’t keep running forever. They should stop automatically when the tick counter in the Interface tab’s toolbar reaches 500.

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Second, wouldn’t it be nice to adjust the energy the turtles gain and lose as they eat grass and reproduce?

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All six of them, as well as 2020 running back commit Jase McClellan , showed out at The Opening, as Team Overdrive won the 7on7 Tournament. Rattler, Stogner and Wease all earned All-Tournament Team honors in the process, and Rattler was named the top QB in the Elite 11.

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Dancers Mallory Markhamand Madeline Matuska of ka·nei·see | collective. Photo by Rob Best

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Under the direction of choreographer Tanya Chianese and Heather Arnett, director of theCat Call Choir , about 16 young women will take the stage at CounterPulse in San Francisco, April 19-22, to tell their stories with humor and candor. This event is presented with the hope that audiences can have smarter conversations about consent than some of the hurtful discourse that followed in the wake of the #MeToo movement.

Mark Your Calendars for April 19-22: Nevertheless Hits CounterPulse With a Unique Story on Gender-Based Harassment

How did you both get started in the arts? How long have you both been involved in the arts?

Tanya Chianese: I have been an artist in various mediums since I can remember. I have been a working artist for eight years, with a degree in Modern Dance as well as Art History behind that. I have worked as a choreographer, teacher, performer, grant writer, non-profit administrator, and the Artistic Director of ka·nei·see | collective since we debuted in 2014.

Tanya Chianese:

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Dancers Mallory Markhamand Madeline Matuska. Photo by Rob Best

What speaks to you both specifically about this project? Do you have any personal stories you’d like to share about what connects you to feminism and the anti-street harassment movement?

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