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Secondary phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) swelling response is a good indicator of T‐cell‐mediated immunity in free‐living birds

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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible [...]

HOMEPAGE : http://www.nal.usda.gov/

Santiago‐Quesada, Francisco Albano, Noelia Castillo‐Guerrero, José Alfredo Fernández, Guillermo et al.

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Secondary phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) swelling response is a good indicator of T‐cell‐mediated immunity in free‐living birds
2015
Santiago‐Quesada, Francisco; Albano, Noelia; Castillo‐Guerrero, José Alfredo; Fernández, Guillermo; González‐Medina, Erick; Sánchez‐Guzmán, Juan MANUEL; Burthe, Sarah
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12295
The validity of using the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) test to measure acquired immunity, one of the most widely used methods, is currently being debated due to new knowledge on the complex physiology of the process. As a greater secondary response to repeated challenges linked to increases of circulating lymphocyte levels would be indicative of a T‐cell‐mediated immune response, we performed for the first time an experiment under natural conditions with repeated PHA challenges in free‐living adult birds and chicks to shed light on this topic. We found significantly stronger secondary response to PHA injection independent of sex or age, while controlling for body condition, the second response being on average 90% larger than the first. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the second PHA challenge, whereas no significant differences were found among untreated birds. Significant positive correlations between the PHA response and both lymphocyte counts and plasma protein levels (mainly albumin, globulin precursor) were recovered, whereas no significant differences were recovered in plasma protein levels between challenges. Our results are consistent with those from captive birds, supporting the validity of the PHA skin‐swelling test as an accurate gauge of acquired T‐cell‐mediated immunity in birds.
[blood proteins, immune response, body condition, adults, phytohemagglutinin, birds, chicks, albumins, adaptive immunity]
[Ibis]
2016/US/US2016_0.rdf
Abstract
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The validity of using the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) test to measure acquired immunity, one of the most widely used methods, is currently being debated due to new knowledge on the complex physiology of the process. As a greater secondary response to repeated challenges linked to increases of circulating lymphocyte levels would be indicative of a T‐cell‐mediated immune response, we performed for the first time an experiment under natural conditions with repeated PHA challenges in free‐living adult birds and chicks to shed light on this topic. We found significantly stronger secondary response to PHA injection independent of sex or age, while controlling for body condition, the second response being on average 90% larger than the first. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the second PHA challenge, whereas no significant differences were found among untreated birds. Significant positive correlations between the PHA response and both lymphocyte counts and plasma protein levels (mainly albumin, globulin precursor) were recovered, whereas no significant differences were recovered in plasma protein levels between challenges. Our results are consistent with those from captive birds, supporting the validity of the PHA skin‐swelling test as an accurate gauge of acquired T‐cell‐mediated immunity in birds.

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First, instead of always using 100 turtles, you can have a varying number of turtles.

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Second, wouldn’t it be nice to adjust the energy the turtles gain and lose as they eat grass and reproduce?

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Dancers Mallory Markhamand Madeline Matuska of ka·nei·see | collective. Photo by Rob Best

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Dancers Mallory Markhamand Madeline Matuska. Photo by Rob Best

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