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Secondary phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) swelling response is a good indicator of T‐cell‐mediated immunity in free‐living birds

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The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States, with locations in Beltsville, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible [...]

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Santiago‐Quesada, Francisco Albano, Noelia Castillo‐Guerrero, José Alfredo Fernández, Guillermo et al.

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Secondary phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) swelling response is a good indicator of T‐cell‐mediated immunity in free‐living birds
2015
Santiago‐Quesada, Francisco; Albano, Noelia; Castillo‐Guerrero, José Alfredo; Fernández, Guillermo; González‐Medina, Erick; Sánchez‐Guzmán, Juan MANUEL; Burthe, Sarah
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12295
The validity of using the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) test to measure acquired immunity, one of the most widely used methods, is currently being debated due to new knowledge on the complex physiology of the process. As a greater secondary response to repeated challenges linked to increases of circulating lymphocyte levels would be indicative of a T‐cell‐mediated immune response, we performed for the first time an experiment under natural conditions with repeated PHA challenges in free‐living adult birds and chicks to shed light on this topic. We found significantly stronger secondary response to PHA injection independent of sex or age, while controlling for body condition, the second response being on average 90% larger than the first. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the second PHA challenge, whereas no significant differences were found among untreated birds. Significant positive correlations between the PHA response and both lymphocyte counts and plasma protein levels (mainly albumin, globulin precursor) were recovered, whereas no significant differences were recovered in plasma protein levels between challenges. Our results are consistent with those from captive birds, supporting the validity of the PHA skin‐swelling test as an accurate gauge of acquired T‐cell‐mediated immunity in birds.
[blood proteins, immune response, body condition, adults, phytohemagglutinin, birds, chicks, albumins, adaptive immunity]
[Ibis]
2016/US/US2016_0.rdf
Abstract
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The validity of using the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) test to measure acquired immunity, one of the most widely used methods, is currently being debated due to new knowledge on the complex physiology of the process. As a greater secondary response to repeated challenges linked to increases of circulating lymphocyte levels would be indicative of a T‐cell‐mediated immune response, we performed for the first time an experiment under natural conditions with repeated PHA challenges in free‐living adult birds and chicks to shed light on this topic. We found significantly stronger secondary response to PHA injection independent of sex or age, while controlling for body condition, the second response being on average 90% larger than the first. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the second PHA challenge, whereas no significant differences were found among untreated birds. Significant positive correlations between the PHA response and both lymphocyte counts and plasma protein levels (mainly albumin, globulin precursor) were recovered, whereas no significant differences were recovered in plasma protein levels between challenges. Our results are consistent with those from captive birds, supporting the validity of the PHA skin‐swelling test as an accurate gauge of acquired T‐cell‐mediated immunity in birds.

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command to add the next point to a plot. This command moves the current plot pen to the point that has an X coordinate equal to 1 greater than the previously plotted X coordinate and a Y coordinate equal to the value given in the plot command (in the first case, the number of turtles, and in the second case, the number of green patches). As the pens move they each draw a line.

You can now watch the plot being drawn as the model is running. Your plot should have the general shape of the one below, though your plot might not look exactly the same.

Remember that we left “Auto Scale?” on. This allows the plot to readjust itself when it runs out of room.

If you forget which pen is which, you can edit the plot and check the “Show legend?” checkbox.

You might try running the model several times to see what aspects of the plot are the same and which are different from run to run.

To make comparisons between plots from one model run and another, it is often useful to do the comparison for the same length of model run. Learning how to stop or start an action at a specific time can help make this happen by stopping the model at the same point each model run. Keeping track of how many times the go procedure is run is a useful way to cue these actions. That’s what the tick counter does.

You’re already using the tick counter in your model, with the reset-ticks and tick commands, which also trigger plotting.

You can also use the tick counter for other things, such as to set a limit on the total length of a run.

Change the go procedure:

Now setup and run the model.

The graph and model won’t keep running forever. They should stop automatically when the tick counter in the Interface tab’s toolbar reaches 500.

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command advances the tick counter by 1. ticks is a reporter which reports the current value of the tick counter. reset-ticks , in your setup procedure, takes care of restarting the tick counter at 0 when a new run is set up and ready to begin.

First, instead of always using 100 turtles, you can have a varying number of turtles.

Test this change and compare how having more or fewer turtles initially affect the plots over time.

Second, wouldn’t it be nice to adjust the energy the turtles gain and lose as they eat grass and reproduce?

And, inside of reproduce , make this change:

Finally, what other slider could you add to vary how often grass grows back? Are there rules you can add to the movement of the turtles or to the newly hatched turtles that happen only at certain times? Try writing them.

So now you have a simple model of an ecosystem. Patches grow grass. Turtles wander, eat the grass, reproduce, and die.

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“Spencer has given everybody a spark. Why? Because at Oklahoma we always love, you know, who’s the next great one, who’s the next guy. You can have a Heisman Trophy winner, but it’s who’s the next guy? Who’s going to be the next great one? That’s what’s always fun about everything that’s going on there.”

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Dancers Mallory Markhamand Madeline Matuska of ka·nei·see | collective. Photo by Rob Best

Recently, I had the privilege of interviewing Tanya Chianese and Heather Arnett, the brilliant minds behind the direction of Nevertheless , an original evening of song and dance aimed at addressing the issue of gender-based violence and harassment .

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How did you both get started in the arts? How long have you both been involved in the arts?

Tanya Chianese: I have been an artist in various mediums since I can remember. I have been a working artist for eight years, with a degree in Modern Dance as well as Art History behind that. I have worked as a choreographer, teacher, performer, grant writer, non-profit administrator, and the Artistic Director of ka·nei·see | collective since we debuted in 2014.

Tanya Chianese:

Heather Arnett: I’ve been a dancer and performer since I was a kid, but Cat Call Choir was my first foray into making politically inclined art. The seed for Cat Call Choir was planted in 2014 when I began documenting personal street harassment encounters in the Bay Area. I collected over 4 months of data including location, what I was wearing, what was said, my response (verbal, physical and psychological), and the gender, race and perceived age of the person addressing me. I wrote the first few verses of Lick You Lullaby from that data and, from that point forward, Cat Call Choir seemed to create itself fueled by the need to do something with my anger and frustration and from a desire to provide other women the opportunity to do the same.

Heather Arnett:

Dancers Mallory Markhamand Madeline Matuska. Photo by Rob Best

What speaks to you both specifically about this project? Do you have any personal stories you’d like to share about what connects you to feminism and the anti-street harassment movement?

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